Revista Română de Studii Eurasiatice, Anul XIV, Nr. 1-2/2018

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Foaia de titlu/Cover2

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Cuprins/Contents

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Europe

Corina Bistriceanu-Pantelimon, Cristi Pantelimon, Family and Affection in Indo - European Culture: Odyssey (p. 7-18)

Abstract. The family, still regarded as the main value in the life of Europeans, is defined today almost exclusively by legal regulations, economic arrangements and natural needs of its members. However, the original forms of the family, consisting of mythical kinship that put together the human and the divine plan. Odyssey is, in the words of George Murnu, a creation intended for the crowd, kneaded by the life needs, meant to respond, at the same time, to his spiritual needs and to its most tangible concerns. Beyond the political-military-historical narrative, the Odyssey depicts an episode of family history. The marital and the parental relationships are structured according to the criteria of loyalty and fidelity created by the fact that all members, parents and children, husbands and wives, slaves and masters, people and deities belong at the same cosmic unity. Authority is defined by age and sex and it never transcends the organic solidarity which brings people close to the dignity of gods and brings gods closer to understanding people. The intimacy and affection do not preclude the obligations associated to family ranks but enhances them. The dominance does not mean power, but protection. The authority is a legitimate ascendancy of a leader initiated, at a higher level, in the intimacy with the gods.

Keywords. family, mythical kinship, paternity, authority, ethics.                                       

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Angela-Anca Dobre, Considerations on the Triumphal Monument from Adamclisi Starting from Volumes in Collections of the County Library „I. N. Roman” Constanţa (p. 19-28)

Abstract. The material presents, 140 years after the Dobrudja Union with Romania, a series of stages from the evolution of the archaeological researches carried out on this territory, with a special look at the Triumphal Monument from Adamclisi-Tropaeum Traiani. In Dobrogea, which is perceived as a "living museum" and a crucible of Romanian ethnogenesis, this monument is a certification of our Latin origin. Our research is based on the books and articles in the collections of the Constanta County Library, with emphasis on the work of the first researcher of the monument, Grigore Tocilescu.

Keywords. Dobrogea, Adamclisi, monument, library, Grigore Tocilescu.

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Marius-Florin Lascu, Evolution of Scythia Minor in the Period 565-602. Historical Social and Military Aspects (p. 29-42)

Abstract. At historical stage 565-602, the Scythia Minor province, the whole Balkan region has experienced difficult moments due to Slavic and Avars attacks. The migration of the Avars from the North Black Sea to the Danube also involved a considerable part of the Slavs who joined those already present in the Lower Danube area since the early decades of the sixth century.

Keywords. Scythia, invasions, Avars, Slavs, Mauricius, Phocas.

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Mirela Kozlovsky, A Diachronic Analysis of Dacoromanian Influences in the Funeral Ritual of the Tartars of Dobruja (p. 43-54)

Abstract. Dobruja, one of the provinces of Romania, spreading between the Danube and the Black Sea, is a good example of multi-ethnic cohabitation. For hundreds of years, it has been the home of peoples which, through their culture, way of life, and tolerance, have yielded the current configuration of the region’s profile. A collection of documents and chronicles containing precise references to the ethnic origin of the population of Dobruja clearly shows that the majority of the rural  population in the region was Romanian. The population of the ports was fluctuating and heterogeneous. The Turkish-Tartar population, which was Muslim, lived mainly around the town of Babadag. Turkish and Tartar shepherds in search of pastures left behind material traces which attest to the local Turkish-Tartar folklore. Irrespective of its place of origin, each ethnic group, be it a minority or a majority one, was able to assert its identity both inside and outside its community. The numerous cultures and civilisations which settled in this province have maintained their national specificity for hundreds of years. Nevertheless, these peoples have also carried out gradual mutual exchanges, which are currently regarded as identity-defining cultural assets. The evolution of society and the infiltration of the urban lifestyle have led the villages in Dobruja to gradually abandon their patriarchal way of life, while the Dobruja peoples’ traditional manners of manifestation lost some of the picturesque character of the original cultures. The ethnic groups of Dobruja, these sedentary, isolated, and relatively closed communities, preserved ancient practices regarding the customs associated with the cycle of life – birth, marriage, death. These evolved into complex systems, integrated into the ethnic traditions of each people and have presently acquired social, ceremonial or spectacle-like significations. The objective of this research is to highlight the evolution of the funeral ritual of the Tartars of Dobruja and the Dacoromanian influences that have left their mark on it in time. The investigation method employed in this scientific enterprise is the semi-directive interview. The subjects were selected based on their age and experience with respect to the chosen theme.

Keywords. folklore, traditions, customs, ethnic communities, funeral ritual, Tartars of Dobruja.

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Enache Tuşa, The Work of Royal Student Teams in Dobrudja Villages (p. 55-68)

Abstract. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, Romania was in a phase of political and social transition and registered significant demographic growth. Demographic growth altered the social structure and centralized it due to the high demand for agricultural land and the political decision-making process concentrated in the hands of the elite landowners and state bureaucracy. The social and economic realities described above prompted the institutions of the political system to mobilize large communities of inhabitants from different Romanian provinces to inhabit the empty settlements of Dobrudja. We may conclude that strong economic and geopolitical considerations created the imperative of Dobrudja's romanianization and colonization immediately after 1878 when Berlin decided the province should return to Romania.

Keywords. Dobrudja's multiethnic villages, Dimitrie Gusti, royal student teams, Cadrilater.

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Alina Lascu, Evolution of the Dobrudja between the Two World Conflagrations (1918-1939) (p. 69-82)

Abstract. In the period between the two world wars, the Romanian province between the Danube and the Black Sea experienced a sinuous evolution marked by periods of recovery after the first major world conflagration, efforts to integrate the province into the new state, economic and social system, and finally, the loss of the two counties, Caliacra and Durostorum, in favor of the Bulgarian state.

Keywords. Dobruja, World War, agrarian reform, economy, population.

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Tereza Burianová, The Austrian Arms Industry in the Inter-War Period (p. 83-100)

Abstract. The article discusses the development of the Austrian arms industry after World War I, particularly in the 1930s, with an emphasis on the factors that influenced this development. These included primarily the loss of industrial areas resulting from the demise of Austria-Hungary, restrictions and prohibitions arising from the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, signed in 1919, and the economic recession and domestic and international politics in the 1930s. The selected examples outline the methods by which arms production was carried out in individual companies – by transfer of production to factories abroad, for example – despite the stated restrictions stipulated for Austria after the war. It can be said that in spite of all the mentioned circumstances, Austrian arms manufacturers successfully returned to the internal market in the 1930s and won a major position in it. After the Anschluss of Austria (the annexation of Austria into Germany in 1938), Germany took advantage of the relatively developed arms industry of Austria and built the largest arms centre in the area of Upper Austria.

Keywords. Austria, arms industry, peace treaty, 1930s, Staatsfabrik, Hirtenberger, Steyr.

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Dan-Dragoș Sichigea, Mobilisation of the Romanian Navy in the Interwar Period. The 1923-1924 Training Campaign (p. 101-110)

Abstract. In the aftermath of the First World War, the whole Romanian society was in turmoil. Great changes were about and all of the national institutions were feeling the impact. The Navy was no exception in this regard and difficulties were aggravated by the fact that Romania acquired Bessarabia after the war and its coasts were longer and required a bigger fleet. Notwithstanding these issues, the recruiting process and mobilisation works for the Navy had been thrown into chaos by the war. It was in this regard that most of the improvements could be made, considering the fact that expanding the Navy with new, modern ships was proving to be quite difficult.

Keywords. Romanian Navy, Naval Technical Inspectorate, Armed Forces, Interwar period, training campaign.

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Daniel Flaut, The Rural Population of Dobruja in the 1930s: Live Births, Deaths and Natural Increase According to Statistical Data (p. 111-118)

Abstract. This study aims to present some statistical data concerning the number of live births, deaths and the rate of natural increase in rural Dobruja in the 1930s. It makes use of the statistical yearbooks of Romania published between 1933 and 1940, as well as of studies authored by Dumitru C. Georgescu and Sabin Manuilă, collaborators of Dimitrie Gusti.

Keywords. Dobruja, villages, population, live births, deaths, natural increase.

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Maria Bolocan, Marshall Plan: Conclusions (p. 119-130)

Abstract. The Marshall Plan was not the only factor that influenced the European economic recovery. There were direct correlations between the amount of financial aid received from the United States and the different speed of economic recovery in the Marshall Plan beneficiaries. For example, France and the United Kingdom have received a much higher aid per inhabitant than West Germany, which has progressed faster than any other state. The Marshall Plan funds were guided by the Co-operation Administration for Europe in co-operation with the Court of Accounts, which contributed to financial and economic recovery in a very unstable and difficult time for Western Europe. The plan provided for these states money, food, fuel, machinery and all this at a time when the economies of Western European states were low.

Keywords. Marshall Plan, United States, European economy, Western European states, Co-operation Administration for Europe.

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Mihaela Ciobanu, Berlinguer e il socialismo reale/Berlinguer and Real Socialism (p. 131-148)

Abstract. In Enrico Berlinguer's political work, an important place was surely the relationship with international politics and especially with the Soviet Union. I would like to illustrate, albeit briefly, this strange relationship as a contribution to illustrating the political and cultural legacy of the Italian politician. Born in Sassari in 1922 in a powerful anti-fascist rich family, in August 1943 joined the Italian Communist Party in September 1944, moved to Rome and then to Milan, where he worked in the Youth Front, the political movement founded by Eugenio Curia. Within the Front coordinates the anti-fascist youth organizations. His political career in the Italian Communist Party began in 1946 when he entered the party leadership and less than a year later became the secretary general of CYF, the Communist Youth Federation. His first visit to Eastern Europe, as presented by Adriano Guerra, dates back to 1946, when he left for Moscow as Head of the Youth Front delegation and notes that the person who appears to build a bigger system, better in all aspects capitalist society. Young Berlinguer, like all Communists of the epoch, forgets about the "homeland of socialism," as Gramsci called him, believing that the USSR was the image of "the radiant future of mankind." However, only since 1950, Enrico Berlinguer has begun to have close ties with the Soviet Union and with Communist leaders around the world when he was appointed president of the World Federation of Democratic Youth, a 72 million- of members, based in Budapest.

Keywords. Italian politician, Italian Communist Party, Soviet Union, Socialism, World Federation of Democratic Youth.

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Elena-Ana Iancu, Cross-Border Crime and the Extent of Crimes of Trafficking and Exploitation of Vulnerable Persons (p. 149-154)

Abstract. The article contains considerations regarding concepts used in the field of crimes of human trafficking and exploitation of vulnerable persons, as they result from the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, and from traditional national legislation and/or special criminal legislation comprising criminal provisions. It also describes theoretical and practical aspects of the constituent elements of the crimes, as stipulated in the Romanian Criminal Code, Art.209-217, with regard to the trafficking and exploitation of vulnerable persons, with a highlight on the objective content of criminal offences. In addition, certain particularities in the investigation of cross-border crime are highlighted, by taking into account the succession of criminal activities, the dynamics and the specificity of their unfolding on the territory of several states which are related to the circumstantiated active subject, who is a vulnerable person.

Keywords. exploitation, vulnerable, crime, committing.

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Alexandru-Ionuţ Drăgulin, The Treaty of Lisbon and the Conceptualization of the Democratic Model of the European Union (p. 155-176)

Abstract. With its official name "the Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community", the document we are discussing is the most important reform related to the institutional system of the Community. In addition to the changes in power relations between the fundamental institutions of the European Union, the Treaty of Lisbon opens up new perspectives for creating a democratic model based on the rule of law and human rights, two concepts that are now in the focus of the researches. Our hypothesis is that the Treaty has given a new dimension to the institutional system of the Union: it is for the first time to rebalance its powers and to strengthen communication with citizens, establishing concrete ways to emphasize the representative democracy. Finally, medium and long-term evolutions at the institutional level will demonstrate how much the European Union has a high-quality democracy.

Keywords. European democracy, rule of law, human rights, checks-and-balances.

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Elena-Ana Iancu, Ioana-Raluca Rusu, Illegal Migration, Cause or Effect of Criminality under the Context of Influence over the Current World Order in Europe (p. 177-184)

Abstract. Through the paradigm proposed, we are trying to draw attention to the manner in which illegal migration could become a cause or an effect of crime, and the manner in which society perceives illegal migration in a “world which is moving as a result of changing power relations” will be influenced by decisions on security policy in the context of the transition of power in geopolitical, economic and military terms among the developed countries of the world. Conflict in society will arise primarily because states will not have a common view as to the criteria which should define national security, and criminal offenses, in particular, will be dealt with differently by the various states. Another element of the conflict that may arise among political actors lies in the anarchic interaction between state power and non-state entities. However, this pattern of confusion and uncertainty generates a system that is stable over a period of time in which the balance of power is maintained worldwide because states will be more cautious in exercising their own interests through the imposition of radical measures. The assessment of the risks presented in this article will take into account the impact on European security,against the background of the outbreak of riots in Northern Africa, the Middle East and the Near East, of the crisis caused by the migration of people from these states, the unevenness of the economic development of EU Member States, but also by the interaction with Russia amid the deterioration of economic, political and military relations with this world superpower.

Keywords. illegal, migration, risk, assessment.

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Lavinia Elisabeta Popp, Felicia Andrioni, Social Intervention at the Interface with the Professional Development of the Social Worker (p. 185-206)

Abstract. In this paper, the objective of the analysis was to outline the design of the Centre for Career Counselling and Guidance (CCOC-UEMR), whose beneficiaries are also the students from the Social Work Specialisation. The analysis dimensions of this approach were as follows: analysis of social projects carried out, aiming to outline the objectives of intervention of social projects; the supporting elements of project implementation; identification of project characteristics and forms of intervention. During the study, two research methods were used: document analysis and case study, structured on the analysis dimensions based on data on CCOC activity reports, studies conducted within the CCOC, with a special focus on the analysis of specialised studies of the domain. The purpose of the investigative approach was to highlight the indicators taken into account, which led to a social change, as a necessary condition for increasing the economic and social potential of the area by developing the personal and professional development skills of 62 students from the Social Work Specialisation. This analysis has emerged from the following research questions: - How is the intervention design outlined in a social project? - What are the forms of social project intervention? Based on the analysis of CCOC documents, the case study was elaborated around the reflected analysis dimensions.

Keywords. counseling, intervention, project, development, social worker.

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Laurenţiu Marin Dobre, Underwater Archaeology. Underwater Working Methods (p. 207-228)

Abstract. Underwater archaeological investigations are undertaken by scientific and auxiliary personnel, qualified for working in hyperbaric environment and are performed with specific underwater methods of study. From the technical and current practice points of view, this article presents the devices for excavation/absorption, metal detection, communication, illumination, localization, photography, videography and positioning, used in the underwater archaeological site, reflected in the divers’ experience and scientific activities during the last years. This presentation aims to update the information regarding underwater archaeology, related to the local underwater sites.

Keywords. underwater archeology, underwater metal detector, the geyser pump, Long baseline acoustic positioning system, GPS intelligent buoy.

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Central Asia

Paul Antonopoulos, The ‘Unconquerable’ Afghanistan: A Place where Empires Come to Die and the ‘Third Great Game’? (p. 229-252)

Abstract. The strategic location of Afghanistan at the foot of the Hindu Kush and being the entry point connecting Central Asia, South Asia and the Middle East together, has meant the country has always been the centre of imperial conquest and rivalry. Despite many great empires having come, or attempted so, to Afghanistan, including the Persians, Greeks, British, Russians, and Americans, all have struggled or failed to subjugate the Afghans, giving the country a reputation as being ‘unconquerable’. The paper explores the question of whether Afghanistan is unconquerable and whether it is a place where empires see the beginning of their end. Through this context, we begin with the Anglo-Afghan Wars and go right through to the contemporary where the ‘Third Great Game’ is taking place between the Great Powers of the US, Russia and China, as well as regional powers Iran, Pakistan and India, to have influence over Afghanistan and the greater Central Asian region.

Keywords. Afghanistan, Third Great Game, US, China, Russia, Central Asia.

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Ilie Iulian Mitran, Tadjikistan: Pan-Iranism and the Ongoing Struggle with Poverty. Mapping the Development of National Culture since the Collapse of the USSR (p. 253-264)

Abstract. The little Central Asian nations that lays on the foothills of the Pamir range had a rough transition to a quasi-democratic regime that was marked by a great deal of violence and difficulty. Nowadays, Tadjiks are struggling with the very limited opportunities that their the country offers them, this determined a significant segment of state’s male population to go to Russia in order to find work. Tajikistan’s biggest issues are related to its limited development opportunities, which can be in part attributed to the country’s remoteness and lack of infrastructure, combined with the rugged terrain that makes matters even worse. Unlike the other four former Soviet republics from Central Asia, the official language of Tadjikistan is not part of the Turkic language family, being in fact Iranian in origin, being closely related with the languages spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, North Caucasus and the Middle East. Pan-Iranism is a movement that seeks to strengthen the ties between Iranian peoples, bringing them closer together the Iranian peoples that live within and around historical Persia, including Tajikistan and Afghanistan, those that inhabit the Middle East – mainly Kurd, and the Ossetians of Transcaucasia. The current paper aims at analyzing the manner in which Tadjikistan’s national culture evolved from the early 1990s to the present day, a strong emphasis will be put on determining the channels through which pan-Iranist ideas made their way to the public scene. Also, if pan-Iranism can contribute to strengthening Tajikistan’s ties with more economically developed nations, especially with the Islamic Republic of Iran, which can open the way to making the little mountainous republic an important economic player in the region. The study will take into account the limits that Tajikistan’s terrain, demographics, climate, settlement patterns, natural resources, educational system and existing infrastructure generate numerous inconveniences when it comes to implementing long-term development projects. The manner in which Tajik culture manifest itself today is a clear indicator if the country sees itself integrated in a wider cultural landscape, as pan-Iranists usually seek, or is willing to preserve the relative isolation that marked its early years of independence.

Keywords. Central Asia, borders, settlements, culture, pan-Iranist ideas, nationalism.

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East and Southeast Asia

Crînguţa-Irina Pelea, Romania’s Image Country and Romanians’ Identity in the Japanese Language Cyberspace. A Comprehensive Analysis of Perceptions, Stereotypes and the Process of Reconstructing Romania (p. 265-282)

Abstract. The present paper focuses on identifying and analysing Romania’s image country, Romanians’ identity and the stereotypes regarding them, in Japanese language cyberspace during 2015-2018. The research study has been conducted on a number of 108 articles written exclusively in Japanese language, selected according to the following criteria: the author’s identity as a native Japanese language speaker, number of visualisations, Google’s rankings, and time of publishing. The innovation of this article lies in the fact that we concentrated strictly on the Japanese language cyberspace and we concluded in pointing out subtle, sensitive and yet radical differences between the reflection of Romania and Romanians in Japanese language cyberspace and international language cyberspace.

Keywords. Stereotypes, Romanian, Romania, image country, qualitative and quantitative analysis, brand country, Japanese language cyberspace, intercultural communication.

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Dan Vătăman, Nguyen The Ha, Nguyen Thi Thuy Dung, The Establishment and Development of Diplomatic Relations and Partnership between European Union and Vietnam (1990-2018) (p. 283-292)

Abstract. This year we celebrate 28 years of diplomatic relations between the European Union and Vietnam, a period during which the two parties have endeavored to expand and diversify their relationship. Thus, the EU-Vietnam partnership have evolved continuously over the years, moving from an initial focus on development cooperation and trade to an increased political cooperation on issues of global concern. Taking into account the dynamic and positive developments of the EU-Vietnam partnership, the purpose of this study is to highlight the most important milestones in bilateral relations and also to analyze how this partnership has contributed to the Vietnam’s unprecedented economic growth and development. In addition, the study aims to emphasize the Romanian-Vietnamese traditional friendship and, through its prism, the support provided by Romania as an EU Member State in the process of strengthening EU-Vietnam relations.

Keywords. EU-Vietnam diplomatic relations, bilateral trade relations, Free Trade Agreement (FTA), Vietnam changing process, Vietnam’s development objectives.

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Paolo Graziano, Neopopulismi. Perché sono destinati a durare, il Mulino, Bologna 2018, 120 p. (Mihaela Ciobanu) (p. 296-298)

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